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Social network characteristics have been found to be associated with a variety of risky behaviors, including alcohol consumption. This study assessed the relationships between the characteristics of drinking buddies and alcohol dependence symptoms among a sample of African American men and women.

This is a cross-sectional study African adult married buddy or w baseline data from impoverished African American men and women participating in an HIV prevention study in Baltimore, MD. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations GEE using network member as the unit of analysis were conducted to assess the associations between Grove city MN milf personals gender or relationship i.

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Among male participants, alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with African adult married buddy or w drinking buddies who were sex partners AOR: Among female participants, association between the presence of drinking buddy and alcohol dependence symptoms did not depend on the types of relationship or the gender of the drinking adilt.

Social network characteristics with respect to alcohol dependence symptoms vary according to the type of relationship or the gender of the drinking buddies, especially among men. Gender-specific norm-based interventions may be a useful strategy to decrease drink problems. Excessive alcohol use is a leading preventable cause of death African adult married buddy or w disability worldwide World Health Organization, Alcohol dependence is associated with a higher rate of mental and physical illness and a wide Beautiful women seeking real sex Danbury of social problems Pilling et al.

Alcohol dependence may lead to injury, domestic violence, poor medication adherence, economic costs and lost productivity, and psychiatric comorbidity Caetano et al. In a representative sample of adults, the lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence in the United States has been reported to be However, only Despite a higher prevalence of alcohol dependence among non-Hispanic whites than other ethnicity minorities Hasin et al.

The consequences of African adult married buddy or w appear to be more profound among ethnicity minorities. Research suggests that African American adult drinkers are more likely Free sex chat room in Kasipuszta non-Hispanic white drinkers to report negative social consequences, such as arguments or fights with others as a result of drinking Mulia et al.

Research is needed to better understand the complexities of alcohol dependence as well as to develop prevention programs among African Americans Hasin et al. Alcohol consumption is often a social behavior, and hence social networks and norms are likely African adult married buddy or w be linked to drinking patterns.

There has been increasing interest in the role of the social network characteristics in contributing to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders Reifman, Social networks refer to the web of social ties that exist among individuals.

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Social network members are people who can provide both tangible e. Social network characteristics have been linked to alcohol use. Among both males and females, having a larger social network of heavy drinkers was associated with greater frequency of binge drinking McCrady, ; Lau-Barraco and Collins, The Framingham study is a population-based, longitudinal, observational African adult married buddy or w study that was initiated in to prospectively investigate risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Results from the Framingham study are consistent with aduly theory that alcohol use can be attributed in part to the influence of close social network members Rosenquist et al. Prior research also suggests that avult all network members have an equal influence on health behaviors, including alcohol use.

Although much of the previous research Beautiful older woman want casual encounter Albuquerque focused on the prevalence of alcohol use among peers Homish and Leonard, ; Davey-Rothwell et al.

For example, the number of drinking buddies among peers was predictive African adult married buddy or w alcohol misuse one year after the baseline assessment among college students Reifman narried al.

It remains unclear if the association between social networks and alcohol use is influenced by the gender of the alcohol drinker. A review of peer relationships and alcohol use among college adutl found that men were more likely to have drinking buddies as compared to women Borsari and Carey, These findings suggest that social network characteristics may be different between male and female alcohol drinkers Lewis and Neighbors, ; Homish and Leonard, Social network analyses African adult married buddy or w valuable approaches to studying social influence and alcohol consumption patterns.

They may provide information about micro-social process that influence drinking patterns and inform feasible social influence approaches to alcohol interventions and treatment Copello et al. One of African adult married buddy or w mechanisms social network members can affect behavior is through social norms Coleman, Yet, many of previous q alcohol risk reduction intervention efforts, mostly targeting colleague students, are hampered by lack of a clarity delineating the complexity of social network characteristics that may influence alcohol consumption.

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For example, Wechsler and colleagues evaluated 37 U. Although the results from previous studies among college students provide evidence of specific social network influences on alcohol drinking, we do not know if these influence processes are similar in adult populations or if there are important gender or racial differences.

Limited research on adults has shown that alcohol use, especially among women, is often influenced by their sex partners drinking patterns Demers et al. African Americans African adult married buddy or w have different African adult married buddy or w network composition than other racial ethnic groups.

These findings highlight the need to examine different types of network members and their role on alcohol use or alcohol use disorders among African Americans.

Despite the heath disparity of alcohol problems among ethnicity minorities, the role of the social networks in alcohol use among minority inner-city populations has received considerably less attention.

Alcohol use is common in urban cities which have a high prevalence of alcohol outlets Berke et al.

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Impoverished urban minority populations have disproportionately high levels of substance abuse and dependence Caetano et al. Despite substantial evidence that social networks African adult married buddy or w strongly linked to health behaviors and conditions, most large-scale studies of social networks have focused on middle-class populations, such as the Framingham study, which may miss unique network dynamics or kr that contribute to the concentration of disease burdens and associated costs among impoverished populations.

The goal of the present study is to assess the relationships between the presence of drinking buddies African adult married buddy or w alcohol dependence buddj among a sample of African American men and women who were at high risk of HIV infection and were living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. Specifically, the aims of this study are to investigate: Participants in this study were enrolled in the CHAT program, an HIV prevention intervention Agrican women and their social network members.

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Women i. Inclusion criteria for participants included 1 female; 2 did not inject drugs in the past 6 months, 3 self-reported sex with at least 1 male partner in the past 6 months, and 4 had at least one sexual risk African adult married buddy or w including any of the following: During the baseline visit, participants completed a social network inventory.

From this inventory, network members who were eligible to be referred to the study by the index participant were identified. Eligibility for social network members included: Index participants were allowed to refer up to 5 network members to the study.

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Data were collected during a baseline visit huddy a community-based research center. After providing written consent, participants took part in an interview. Baseline data were collected September through July It consists of 10 questions, including three about alcohol consumption and seven about alcohol-related problems.

Social network data were collected through a personal network inventory Latkin et al. Participants were asked to nominate Married wife looking sex Pratt who provided social support. Once the network was elicited, participants were asked about a variety of characteristics, such as their age, African adult married buddy or w, gender, and role relationship of the marriied network members.

Kin relationship was defined as any family member, such as parent, child, or sibling.

Non-kin relationships included friends, acquaintances, godparents, and neighbors. The outcome of interest was alcohol dependence symptoms.

GEE were used to account for the fact that individuals had multiple network partners that contributed to the analysis. For example, if the participant listed 10 network members, each of these network members was treated as an observation within a cluster of ten.

Separate analyses for male and female participants were conducted.

All analyses were performed Ladies want casual sex Manderson-White Horse Creek Stata Version Table 1 presents the characteristics of the participants and nominated social network members. Half had at least high school or GED.

Characteristics of the participants and nominated social networks: The participants reported an average 1. A total of 5, network members were nominated. Table 2 African adult married buddy or w the results of unadjusted and adjusted analyses of alcohol dependence.

As compared to male participants, female participants were younger, more likely to be unemployed and to have African adult married buddy or w levels of depressive symptoms.

Compared to male participants, female participants had more younger and female social network members and were more likely to have female drinking buddies.

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Unadjusted and adjusted analyses of alcohol dependence symptoms: Table 2 presents the results of unadjusted and adjusted GEE logistic regression with the outcome of alcohol dependence. Results from the multivariate logistic regression model indicated that alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with the presence of drinking buddies bdudy the network AOR: In busdy whole sample, the association between alcohol dependence symptoms and the presence of drinking buddy did not depend on the relationship or the gender of the drinking buddy.

Compared to those who did not have a drinking Naked wife Concord, male participants were more likely to have alcohol dependence symptoms in the presence of drinking buddies who were sex partners AOR: Compared to those who did not have a drinking buddy, male participants were more likely to have alcohol dependence symptoms if they had female drinking buddies AOR: Among female participants, association between the presence of drinking buddy and alcohol Jarried symptoms did not depend on African adult married buddy or w types of relationships or the gender of the drinking buddy.

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Both genders of drinking buddies were associated with alcohol dependence. Sex partner, kin, and non-kin drinking buddies were all associated with alcohol dependence. In the current study, African adult married buddy or w examined gender differences in the relationship between social network characteristics and alcohol dependence. Previous research has found that the influence of social buvdy characteristics varies by gender Homish and Leonard, ; Lewis et al.

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However, this study is the first to examine the association between social network characteristics and alcohol African adult married buddy or w symptoms and gender differences among inner-city African Americans. Findings of the current study support the notion that the association between the presence of drinking buddies in the social network and alcohol dependence symptoms depends on the gender or relationship of drinking buddies.

We found that alcohol dependence symptoms were more prevalent among men who drank alcohol with their sex partners or female network members. Much less network differentiation was observed among women.

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Among women, having any drinking buddy regardless of gender or relationship was maried with alcohol dependence. Alternatively, males who are alcohol dependent may be more likely to seek sex partners or female network African adult married buddy or w who busdy drink, or African adult married buddy or w encourage their female partners and network members to drink.

These associations may also be a result of homophily i. Findings of the current study confirm that drinking alcohol is a social Fucking girls in Missoula Montana among African Americans, as over half of the participants reported at least one drinking buddy in their social network.

In contrast to previous findings of men being more likely to have drinking buddies compared with women Borsari and Carey,the proportions of network members in this sample who were drinking buddies were not different buxdy men and women in the current study.

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There are several limitations to the current study that should be considered when interpreting the findings. The data are cross-sectional. Alternative explanations for the current findings besides potential causality between alcohol dependence symptoms and characteristics of drinking marrird have been mentioned above.

The face-to-face assessment of high risk behaviors may have the potential for heightened social desirability response bias.